Privacy and the young reader.

young girl reading black and whiteLike all good school librarians I was upset to read about the leaking of the school borrowing history of author Huraki Murakami. This has yet again raised the issue of privacy and the discussion has flared in social media and within library communities.

This is something that I have had to deal with many times in my career, both in public and school libraries. I am a strong advocate of the protection of the human right to privacy at any age, and feel that this protection should be guaranteed under law in public libraries, but what about schools and for very young children?

To me the answer is simple – privacy is a human right that belongs to everyone regardless of age. I was based in a primary school and in my library I had a clear policy of free voluntary choice and the pupil’s borrowing record was protected and belonged to the individual. The only exemption to this was if (after discussion with the person responsible for care issues in the school and myself) we felt that there might be an issue that would put the child personally at risk. This would then involve a private discussion with the child in a safe environment.

This was not an easy policy to maintain as there were many times that parents wanted to know what their child was borrowing and my refusal to share that information was often challenged. I stood my ground and the school supported me for one simple reason; I had it written into the library policy document. Having it in black and white meant that I could guarantee that the children were able to make a free voluntary choice of their reading material and were able to do that without judgement or fear of recrimination.

The first thing I had to do was to ensure that the library policy was accepted, agreed and signed off by the senior leadership team of the school and the school governors. I made sure that the right to privacy was guaranteed for every child, and I also made it clear that the library had a policy of stocking books of all types. I have supported many schools in the development of their own library policies and I quote the suggested outlines here…

“Library users of all ages and levels (including both pupils and staff members) are guaranteed the right of privacy. Should the librarian feel at any time that the pupil is at risk, this will be discussed in private with the pupil and the care team of the school, but the specifics of items borrowed from the library will remain within the ownership of the borrower. This information will be permanently deleted once the pupil leaves the school.”

“It is policy to ensure that material deemed sexist, racist, homophobic or otherwise offensive or sexually explicit is not accommodated. However, challenging material will not be excluded simply because it is challenging, and the library will offer some material that may be outside the reader’s normal life experience. This will be to broaden and add depth to their studies, knowledge and understanding.”

This sort of clear policy gives a lot of scope for choosing stronger material and, as an unbiased professional, I felt that I was the best qualified person to make this decision. I’m the book expert in the building, it’s my job! However there were times that I would turn to other professionals and to my colleagues to help me make the decision. No matter what I had on my shelves the pupils knew that they would be able to borrow it without anyone else knowing that they had done so. That was very important to me as I felt that the library had an essential role to play in fostering a love of reading for pleasure and that can’t happen if a child feels that someone is breathing over their shoulder.

That’s not to say that there weren’t times when a Rhino Mum (or Rhino Dad!) came storming in to see me in a shortsighted rage demanding to know why their child had brought home a book that they didn’t approve of. It’s part of the job to be honest and we all have our ways of dealing with it. I had a good friend who was a school librarian in a private Catholic girl’s school and he used to keep a separate library card for girls who wanted to borrow books that they knew would be disapproved of. Another friend kept what she called her “junk card” for pupils in a high achieving school who wanted to secretly borrow trashy novels away from the prying eyes of pushy parents and teachers. I must confess that I also had a large number of books that I had ostensibly borrowed myself but had actually been borrowed by children who didn’t want it to go on their library record. Even the promise of privacy was not enough for some children.

A school library has two main functions – to support and develop reading skills, and to encourage and nurture reading for pleasure. In order to develop reading skills it is often necessary to keep a progressive list of books read, but this process should be distinct and separate from reading for pleasure. Learning how to read, and learning to love books are often muddled for younger children and this is a mistake. I personally feel that there should be a separate school library issue system for study books (including books on reading schemes) to those read for pure pleasure and free voluntary choice.

Privacy for pupils and young people is always going to be a thorny issue as we often bring to bear issues of care and responsibility, but I have always felt that it is deceptively simple. In fact, these rights are protected under Article 16 in the UN Convention document – The Rights of The Child. Furthermore there are a number of other articles within this document that ensure children should have unrestricted access to leisure and information. To restrict their privacy is to restrict access.

Every human being of any age deserves the right to privacy. If we restrict that then we also place restrictions on curiosity and understanding. We drive young people to find information though darker sources, and through marginalized means and that is what in turn leads young people to harbour feelings of loneliness, isolation and social disengagement. The right book at the right time can change or save a life – but will the vulnerable and confused young person find that information if they fear their borrowing history will be shared or sold? 

This is not just about children, this is about the right to privacy that is due to us all. As professional librarians we have a duty of care to the sensitive information contained within our records. If that trust is broken then we not only damage the service we offer, but we also put at risk the mental health and wellbeing of library users. I offer as an example the Books on Prescription scheme. This is having great success and as a result is not only saving the NHS a small fortune, but is hugely improving the quality of life for its users. Would that be the same if people feared that their borrowing history would be leaked or sold? Borrowing history could be open to catastrophic misinterpretation that could be permanently damaging to an individual’s life. Take for example student doctor, Yousif Badri, who was recently cleared of terrorism charges. One of the charges against him was that he “owned books on terrorism” when in fact he’d purchased freely available and academic books on Islamic extremism from Amazon. Misinterpretation of the books he read has dragged him to the point where he had to defend himself in court, and this has been hugely damaging to his career.

 Leaking Murakami’s teenage borrowing history might be interesting to his fans, but what it actually does is chip away at a private part of his life that should only ever have belonged to him and that is an erosion of everyone’s right to privacy.

Dawn Finch is a prominent UK school library and literacy consultant, and a children’s and YA writer.

Useful documents

UN – Rights of the Child – full document

UN – Rights of the Child – summary

UN – Rights of the Child – summary for children

CILIP (Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals) – User Privacy in Libraries – full document

Data Protection Act – UK – search for law pertaining to personal privacy

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Libraries – “isn’t it all on the Internet?” NO!

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The reaction to the publication of the Sieghart Report highlighted a number of important issues about public libraries, but one above all others – politicians clearly have absolutely no idea at all what librarians do and what libraries are for.
Sadly there still exists the antiquated and naive view that libraries are only required for people who want to borrow a book. This is utter nonsense and deserves to be challenged. That is as narrow a view as suggesting that trains are only for delivering people to work.
So, for all of those people who still haven’t bothered to find out what libraries and librarians actually do, let’s have a closer look at that.

Let’s look at a day in our imaginary library. Our imagined library is in a rural community of around 7000 people, mainly young families and older people. The community is thirty miles from the nearest big city and has an erratic train link and a limited bus service. There is no community centre and no Citizens Advice Bureau. The council offices are out of town, as is the hospital and minor injuries clinic, and other local provisions have been cut. Even though this is an imagined community it is one that is mirrored all over the country.

One of the things that our imaginary town does have, is a library. Built with philanthropic money at the turn of the 20th Century it is in the market square, right in the middle of the town in a place designed to be accessible for all. The people of our community rely on the library for many things.
A young mother needs helps filling in the forms to apply for school for her children because she has no one at home to help her. She goes to the library and the librarian helps her to find the forms online and fill them in so that her child can go to school.

A couple need help finding out what services or help is available for their elderly parents. They go to the library and the librarian gives them information about books on wheels, local care provision and what benefits they might apply for.

An elderly person living alone faces another winter in isolation. She goes to the library and the librarian helps her to apply for winter fuel allowance online, and then she sorts out a volunteer to pop around with books and shopping once a week.

A young couple have moved into the area and do not know anyone. They join the library and the librarian tells them all about local childcare, local clubs and facilities. They borrow books and leaflets about the area and even join local reading groups.

A man is told by his doctor that his vision is failing. He talks to his librarian and she helps him to register online for services for visual impairment and, twice a week, she helps him to choose audio books by reading the boxes out to him. She even saves audio books for him that she knows he will like and she knows which ones he has already had.

What else are you looking for? List of local doctors and dentists? Go to the library and ask the librarian. Information about local planning applications? Go to the library and ask the librarian. Can’t work out how to use your computer? Go to the library and ask the librarian. Stuck at home with small children and need some time-out? Go to the library and ask the librarian. Lonely, depressed, isolated? Go to the library and talk to the librarian (or just be somewhere safe and warm.) Need some help with your studies and don’t have the support or technology at home? Go to the library and ask the librarian……
Getting the idea?

We need to shake off the idea that all libraries are fit for is to borrow a book. Right from their inception that is not what libraries were for – they were for educating the people and providing information for those who would not have otherwise had access to it. I’m guessing that not all of the political parties are that keen on providing information to the masses and educating adults for free, because I can’t think of any other reason why they would not be supporting libraries and the professionals who run them.

This is not an old fashioned or twee idea of protecting an antiquated institution, but rather a 21st century idea to ensure that each and every community has access to the information it needs. Look at what we’ve done in our imagined community and see the bigger picture. The mother now has a place for her child in school, thus saving money and time for local authorities and for the school board. The couple have found support for their elderly parents and this means that they are able to stay in their home for a while longer thus saving the social services tens of thousands of pounds. The virtually housebound elderly lady now has visitors and is less isolated and has a winter fuel payment and is less likely to succumb to illness associated with age and cold. The young couple feel more engaged in their community and are more likely to contribute to it and to stay within it. The visually impaired man is now able to function in his community again and is less likely to have to rely on expensive care services.

Most of these people have also borrowed books (or audio books, or dvds, or cds, or leaflets….) but that’s not why they went there in the first place. They went there because they needed answers to questions that they did not know how to ask. The snobby response to this would be “they can look it up on the internet can’t they?” Can they? What if you live in a rural community where you don’t have internet access or phone signal? What if you don’t know exactly what question to ask? What if you do ask the internet, and it gives you a million hits and you don’t know which one to trust?

This is what libraries are for, and what professional librarians are for. It is monumentally short-sighted to cut away one of the most important services in a community without ever having a clear picture of what they do in the first place, but that is exactly what is happening all over the country. Librarians are being replaced with inexperienced volunteers who, with the best will in the world, will never be able to provide the service that a trained professional can. Libraries are either being closed or their hours are cut so that they are only able to provide an erratic and unreliable service. Schools have little or no library provision and  more often than not there is no trained professional to support their reading progression. The areas worst hit seem to be the ones that need the library the most; poor areas and ones in rural communities. The Sieghart Report has some valuable ideas in it but none of this will mean anything if the various political parties do not act upon it. Join the campaign for libraries and make sure that you and your family have access to something that will ultimately give you, and your entire community, a better standard of living – a library with a librarian. 

A full list of current (2104/2015) public library legislation is available here

For other ideas about campaigning and advocacy, you should also see Speak Up For Libraries. and follow @speakup4libs Many other counties also have powerfully active library campaigns, search twitter and social media for their details and please feel free to share your details in the comments below (note – all comments are moderated and so will not immediately appear)

 Article written by Dawn Finch 

Vice President CILIP

(@dawnafinch) author and children’s library and literacy consultant.

Footnote – this article is in an updated form, first posted April 2015

A new Children’s Laureate.

I was lucky enough to be invited to the announcement for the new Children’s Laureate and am thrilled that the role has been accepted by children’s illustrator and writer Chris Riddell. Chris is an outspoken and dedicated supporter not only of children’s books, but also of school libraries and librarians and he used his acceptance […]

Pupil Library Assistant Award

This is a matter that is very close to my heart. I’ve met some amazing pupil assistants in my time and it’s fantastic that CILIP SLG are now supporting this award.

This new Award is to recognise the contribution made by pupils who work in their school libraries, to acknowledge the skills gained and to give them the recognition they deserve, both within and outside their school community.

Nominations can be made by the School Librarian, by emailing the nomination to president@cilip.org.uk by 31 October 2014.

A shortlist of candidates will be drawn up by the Judging Panel and announced during the first week of the school term in January. Shortlisted pupils will be asked to submit a portfolio of evidence by 13th February 2015 and the shortlisted nominees will be invited to an Awards Ceremony, to be held on Thursday 12th March at a London venue.

Winners of the award will receive

£100 worth of books
£100 worth of books for their school library
Glass book trophy x 2 for the winner and for their school librarian/library
A certificate

Shortlisted nominees will receive:

£50 worth of books
A certificate

For full information about the award and the nomination criteria, please download the guidelines below.

To submit a nomination, please use the link below to download the required forms.

– See more at: http://www.cilip.org.uk/school-libraries-group/pupil-library-assistant-year-award#sthash.uca36eqI.dpuf

Twitter 101 with James Dawson and Dawn Finch

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Twitter 101 with James Dawson and Dawn Finch

At the London and South East SLG LibMeet we were lucky enough to have top YA author James Dawson with us and he helped us out in a discussion about the merits of social networking and using Twitter. If you haven’t discovered him yet, James is particularly entertaining on Twitter and is more than aware of the importance of social networking. I’m deeply envious of his huge number of devoted followers, but I hope I’m worth a follow too!

You can follow James @_jamesdawson and me @dawnafinch and decide for yourselves.

Firstly, are you on Twitter? If not, why not?!

These days it is vital that School Librarians are more proactive with their approach to their work, and this should include embracing and using social networking. Many of us are now used to using Facebook amongst our friendship groups, and this format is not ideal for use for work or school, but what about Twitter?.

Twitter at its most basic is a simple forum for people to share short comments (140 characters long), links and photos and to retweet (share) other member’s messages. It is a fantastic way to link with your followers (pupils) and to express a public profile for your library.

For starters – get an account! Obviously you are going to need to check that this is okay with your headteacher and SLT. If you can, choose an account name for your library account that shows that you are a school library, this will help. Authors love library accounts and are far more likely to reply if they can instantly see that you are school library. If you have a private Twitter account, keep it that way and don’t link the school account to yours. Everything that you post on your school account should represent the ethos of the whole school and should promote books and reading.

Next – follow people. Search for authors and other librarians that you know and see what they post. If they are interesting and posting regularly (and replying to questions) then follow them. A lot of people will follow you back, but don’t take it personally if they don’t. Search for organisations connected to books and reading, and follow them. Because you want to keep this interesting for young people, avoid the dryer more sales-orientated organisations and stick to things that your pupils will want to read and share.

Make it known. Pupils will not follow you if they don’t know you are there. Put the Twitter name on all of your emails and stationery. Stick a poster up in the library saying that the library is on Twitter. Make sure that the staff know about the account and have the account name in a prominent place so that others can follow too.

What to say! Twitter is full of things that are of interest to young people. Seriously, have a search and see what other people have posted and share it with a retweet. Start off by sharing things like new books in the library (with a photo) and tell people what the library offers. Are there school events you can share? Author events? Book launches? Follow your local bookshops and share their events. Search for events by the most popular writers in the library, and retweet their posts. Don’t wait for something interesting to come up, search for things and keep your Twitter feed interesting and up to date. Start up a Library Twitter Group at school and take pupil advice on what should be on there.

What not to say! Basically, if you wouldn’t put it on a t-shirt and wear it around school, then it shouldn’t be on your Twitter feed! It sounds simple but you have to be in work-mode at all times online. Make absolutely sure that you do not post anything that the parents and governors might find inappropriate.

What next? Direct contact with authors is one of the best reasons to be on Twitter. Authors use Twitter all the time and you can find most of the top names in children’s and YA fiction on there. Search your favourites and see if they reply to other people, and then Tweet them too! Just write a message with their Twitter name in it, and see if they reply. You’ll be amazed how many will reply to an account that is clearly a library.

#hashtags When you have worked out how to do your tweets and are finding it easier to navigate the pages, you should start using hashtags. These are the little bits that you add into your messages so that people can find other messages with the same themes. Basically you write your message, and then you add a hashtag into the body of the message. For example, if you are writing a tweet about how great the library is, you might use #lovelibraries and it will become a link that other people can use to find people who also love libraries!

Some of the most useful hashtags for librarians are #lovelibraries #amreading #shoutabout but you might also like #amwriting as lots of writers use this one. Keep a note of the hashtags that other people use so that you can use them too.

Advanced stuff! When your account is busy and active you might find that you need to start thinking about how to organise your account a bit more. This is when you might want to try things like Hoot Suite. You can organise things into lists so that you can just see the tweets that matter to you and your library.

 In summary, we need to be out there, be visible and be active in all aspects of reading and literacy and social networking is just another part of it. Agree with it or not, it’s not going anywhere and so we may as well use it to our advantage!

 

 

Preparing a Reading for Pleasure policy

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In March 2012 Ofsted published the document Moving English Forward. This document was designed to tackle the problem of low and falling literacy levels in the UK and, for the first time, it mentions the need for a specific Reading For Enjoyment/Pleasure policy (see Moving English Forward, paras 65 – 71, pages 29-31) and we have seen evidence of these expectations on many Ofsted inspection reports since then. Mention of the presence of such a policy, or the lack of one, has been featuring on the front page of many returned reports since November 2012 when the new inspection framework was implemented.

To help school librarians engage with the process of implementing this policy in their schools, CILIP SLG ran a course dealing with both the document Moving English Forward, and policy preparation. Barbara Ferramosca lead a workshop on writing a Reading for Pleasure policy on this day and it proved most informative and useful.

My guest post today is written by Barbara, school librarian at Lilian Baylis Technology School in London – a school that was rated by Ofsted as “an outstanding school in all aspects” after their inspection under the new framework early in 2013.

If you have any questions about this post, please comment and they will be forwarded to Barbara.

 Preparing a Reading for Pleasure Policy

 

Every school must provide a School Reading for Pleasure Policy during an Ofsted inspection: it is a simple fact that has huge consequences for our profession and a huge potential that we cannot afford to miss.

Promoting a reading for enjoyment ethos is our field of expertise and it would not surprise me if a member of your School Leadership Team had already frantically accosted you with the question: “What are we doing to promote reading for pleasure in this school?”.  If they have not, you must take the initiative and write the policy: if you present it to them, they will probably be just grateful that it is something they do not need to think about anymore, a box ticked in their inspection checklist!

During our workshop, discussions lead to some very important points to consider in preparation for an inspection.

Find endorsement for your policy

The policy is a public document, an official school policy and it is at the heart of what you do: it explains your library commitment and beliefs in nurturing a genuine lifelong interest in reading in all your students. It does it by clearly acknowledging  the widest possible definition of the term “reading for pleasure”  and by involving different stakeholders that will give weight to the document. If it is a document whose principles are agreed upon by students, governors, members of staff and parents, it will become an important  reference document for your service.

It always sounds a daunting task to write a policy, especially if you have never written one before and it could become quite challenging and time-consuming to try to get all of these stakeholders involved. However, if time is of the essence, make sure to involve at least your students as a matter of priority.

Ensure that students are on your side

There is the possibility that Ofsted inspectors will not come and visit the library or speak to you . Your reading for pleasure policy is but a way to show what the library is doing because there is another more powerful voice that you can use to make sure that your message comes across loud and clear to them. Inspectors will speak to your students in several occasions and you must make sure that they will speak highly of the library and the impact that has on their attitude towards reading. Let them be your ambassadors. As a result of this, our advice was not to fret and spend a lot of time trying to put together a complicated and long policy but keep it simple, short and to the point.

What should a reading for pleasure policy include?

The Teachers’ organisation has some very useful guidance on how to draft a comprehensive policy. They specify that a school Reading for Pleasure Policy or Statement could include the following:

  • a statement on who/what the policy is for;
  • a clear outline of the difference between the Reading for Pleasure policy and the school literacy policy: this is absolutely necessary and we cannot underestimate the importance of reiterating this difference, especially with the Leader Management Team of our school. Literacy is a direct effect of Reading for enjoyment and we must ensure that we make clear the difference between the two in the clearest terms possible.
  • a statement about the importance of using the widest definition of reading throughout the school. This could include newspapers, e-books, comics, etc. this is the point in your policy where you decide on your school’s definition of reading for pleasure. Ideally you want to use the widest definition possible and have it officially accepted in order to challenge any possible decisions that are made in the future that threaten our students’ right to choose what they want to read.
  • a statement on the value of reading for pleasure and how it links to wider academic, social and emotional development: you must use authoritative sources and use quotes from these sources in order to give clear evidence of its impact. We have attached a brief bibliography of studies that you may want to refer to or quote for this purpose
  • access and equalities issues in relation to reading for pleasure. This should include accessible formats as well as consideration of the content of the books made available for use by the children: your policy must clearly state a commitment of the library to provide different books and resources in different formats in order to meet the needs of your students (i.e audiobooks, dyslexia-friendly publications, ebooks, books in other languages, etc.). Firstly, there must be an official acknowledgement that students may prefer to access stories in formats other than the printing. This is also particularly important in terms of the financial impact of such a statement simply because books in different formats cost more than simple paperbacks!
  • the importance of the role of the teacher and other adults in school in relation to fostering a love of reading through a wide range of activities: this is the point in your policy when you acknowledge the importance of using role models in the school to support your message and that every single member of staff is responsible for reinforcing a positive attitude towards reading for enjoyment. This is what the inspectors will look for and now is probably a good time to get your Headteacher on board with this idea!
  • links to planning for reading for pleasure across the curriculum for both the whole school and individual classes: after writing all the above, make sure to mention, maybe a series of bullet points, what the library is doing in order to give some concrete examples. As mentioned before, you can decide whether you want to write all the initiatives that you manage in detail. Discussions during the workshop lean towards writing brief descriptions rathen than complex and detailed ones.
  • information about the practical ways in which home-school links can support the school policy: links with parents and how to empower them them to support their children is on the checklist of every inspection and we cannot miss to mention how the library contribute to this. Even if you just attend parents’ evenings or academic review days with a library stand and give posters out, include this in your policy!
  • a statement about the importance of the use of the school library and making links with the local public library;
  • a commitment by the school to ensuring that all pupils have regular access to the school library, properly staffed, including the consideration of free access at break, lunchtimes and before/after school: this may sound redundant however in many occasions we have heard of colleagues’ experiences where the library was used as classroom or as an occasional venue for school events that are not led by the librarian. It is important not leave out a clear commitment from your school part to ensure that students have the opportunity to visit your library on their own free will to browse or borrow a book.
  • a statement on the budget share for reading and library resources – it should be adequately funded on an annual basis, in line with other school budget areas: budget, budget, budget… in a quick show of hands exercise, it was pretty clear that the majority of the librarians attending our course felt that the library was underfunded. After a number of considerations, we felt that we had two big weapons in our arsenal to change this situation: firstly, your school’s FEAR of Ofsted. Secondly, the fact that reading is appearing more and more often in the FIRST page of many Ofsted school reports. We must turn this fear to our advantage by asking our school Leadership Management Team these simple questions: “How confident are you that students are happy with the resources available in the library? How confident are you that they will answer positively and enthusiastically about their attitudes towards reading and the initiatives led by the school? How confident are you that ALL students are aware of the importance of reading for pleasure to their future?” Now is the time to push the point that a library which is understaffed and underfunded will never achieve these goals. To make your point even more effective, do not hesitate to mention other schools’ reports where reading is mentioned: Adam Lancaster showed us a number of examples of reports of other schools in his area so his advice for us was to find these reports and use them!
  • implications for professional development and support: is the school ready to give you opportunity to lead staff insets regarding the latest children literature or on how to promote reading for pleasure in the classroom? Is the school ready to acknowledge that you need time to attend professional courses?
  • a commitment to evaluate the Reading for Pleasure policy. A reading for Pleasure policy should be reviewed ideally once every year.

 Brief bibliography of sources that you can quote

Clark, C. & Rumbold, K. (2006) Reading for Pleasure: A Research Overview. London: National Literacy Trust. Retrieved from http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/research/nlt_

research/271_reading_for_pleasure_a_research_overview

Clark, C. (2011). Setting the baseline: The National Literacy Trust’s first annual survey into reading – 2010. London: National Literacy Trust. Retrieved from

http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/assets/0001/0336/Omnibus_reading_2010.pdf

Cliff Hodges, G. (2010). Reasons for reading: Why literature matters. Literacy, 44(2),

60-68.

Cremin, Teresa (2007). Revisiting reading for pleasure: Delight, desire and diversity. In: Goouch, Kathy and Lambirth, Andrew eds. Understanding Phonics and the Teaching of Reading: A Critical Perspective. Berkshire, UK: McGraw Hill, pp. 166–190. Retrieved from: http://oro.open.ac.uk/12950/2/

 

** ESARD (2012) Research evidence on reading for pleasure. Retrieved from: http://www.eriding.net/resources/pri_improv/121004_pri_imp_reading_for_pleasure.pdf

 Hairrell, A., Edmonds, M., Vaughn, S., & Simmons, D. (2010). Independent Silent Reading for Struggling Readers: Pitfalls and Potential. In E. H. Hiebert, & D. Reutzel (Eds.), Revisiting Silent Reading (pp. 275-289). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

 National Endowment for the Arts. (2007). To read or not to read: A question of national consequence (Research Report #47). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nea.gov/research/ToRead.pdf

 OECD (2002) Reading For Change Performance And Engagement Across Countries – Results From PISA 2000. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/54/33690904.pdf

 Sullivan, A. & Brown, M. (2013) Reading for pleasure puts children ahead in the classroom. London: IOE. Retrieved from: http://www.ioe.ac.uk/89938.html

 Twist, L., Schagen, I., & Hodgson, C. (2007). Readers and Reading: The National Report for England 2006 (PIRLS: Progress in International Reading Literacy Study). Slough: NFER. Available online: http://www.nfer.ac.uk/nfer/publications/PRN01/PRN01.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Moving English Forward – Ofsted, Literacy and the School Librarian

In 2012 Ofsted published the document – Moving English Forward. Their concept behind the document was to attempt to answer the question: how can attainment in English be raised in order to move English forward in schools? CILIP School Libraries Group for London and the South East felt that this was such a huge and complicated issue that it warranted a training day to help us understand what these new changes meant for school librarians.

We invited Adam Lancaster (2012 School Librarian of the Year and literacy champion) to be our guest speaker to help shed some light on this issue and introduce us to the implementation of the document.  It was a fantastic and incredibly interesting day and I have taken the time to summarise the key points here, but there was so much in the day it was very difficult to encapsulate it all. I hope I have done the day justice.

We had as our starting point the new Ofsted inspection criteria and the latest government White Papers as well as Moving English Forward. The new Ofsted framework has been updated to take into account the falling and low literacy levels of young adults and children in our country.  The Ofsted inspection framework now makes specific mention of reading for pleasure, and of creating a specific reading for pleasure policy within schools. Ofsted inspectors will now be reading with children (with a particular focus on year 7 and 8 pupils of high and low ability) and are expecting pupils to be reading materials “deemed appropriate for their age.” (Ofsted quote) The biggest change in the framework is the push to ensure that literacy is interwoven with every single subject on the curriculum. Literacy should now be considered everyone’s business and not just an issue for the English department.

With that all in mind we welcomed Adam to CILIP HQ to help us understand what this all means for school librarians.

Firstly, Adam talked about Literacy in schools and the need for teachers to be preparing pupils in advance for all subjects that they will study. “Teachers talking to pupils about their research beforehand makes their work more purposeful” This all makes sense, and we know that a prepared pupil comes to the library with the tools that they need to help themselves. To support this Adam recommended the PLUS method of learning at these stages – Purpose, Location, Use, Self evaluation. The concept behind this is at the root of the guidelines for what makes outstanding teaching – the development of a pupil who is a successful independent learner.

We then talked about how we see ourselves as school librarians. In the discussion we saw ourselves as nurturers, supporters, facilitators, energisers, readers, presenters, event managers, organisers and general dogsbody! But it was clear that not many of us see ourselves primarily as educators. Adam discussed how we should raise our profile within the school and engage fully with the educational process.

“Know the game and play it!” Every school is different and has a different feel, it is vital for school librarians to know who can be helpful to you and why. It is also important to be reading all available policies and documents on the teaching of literacy. Be informed. Link what you do to what others in the school are doing, intermesh your work with theirs. This is not just about sticking with the English department – as we say, literacy is everyone’s business and it is important to work with other departments. Map your aims against the school’s policies – and be certain that you can always deliver, and over-deliver!

Something that came through very strongly was the need for school librarians to be more pro-active in their schools. “Don’t be, or be perceived to be a victim!” It is time for school librarians to take a stronger stance for what they can do, and to show what they are capable of. To do this the key is obviously to be fully informed about literacy issues, and about documents like Moving English Forward.

School librarians should know and be able to quickly identify low level readers and have a strategy to deal with them. They should also know how these pupils are being taught in class, and how they are being assessed. What is specifically being done by you to raise the reading levels of pupils? To know this it makes sense to understand the assessment process in school, and to feel comfortable using higher level linguistic and literary terms – just like a teacher.

It wouldn’t be a challenging talk without a bit of controversy, and Adam does believe that school librarians need to take on a role that is more intermeshed with the teaching of reading and literacy within the school and to change the way we see the school library. Librarian as teacher is a hot topic at the moment, particularly in these days of performance related pay. Personally I feel that the school library is part of an educational establishment and therefore needs to be part of a pupil’s education. I do feel that school librarians should see themselves as educators. There is an average of twenty five teaching hours a week in school, and every single moment should be getting something new into a child’s head. It is a tiny part of their lives – and I don’t feel that it is unrealistic for them to be learning for every bit of the time that we have them – including in the library.

That is not to say that these need to be lessons in the strict sense, as school librarians we are using our knowledge and passion to inspire and enthuse pupils about reading, and that’s still learning. We want them to enjoy reading and to form the habits for it so that they progress and always have reading in their lives. To do this we must understand the educational nature of progression, as well as still making it fun and enjoyable. We are school librarians, and thankfully the nature of our job is one of multitasking!

A bit more controversy…. Dewey (brace yourselves) does not always suit your pupils, and so be prepared to arrange your library to suit your pupils. Ok, now this one raises a lot of eyebrows and is a detailed issue that I will cover in a longer post later. I’ll just say that I have seen Adam’s shelving scheme in action at another school and it really does work. He has rearranged the stock according to termly requirements and the demands of the curriculum. The books do still have their spine labels, but are split into a number of parallel arrangements around the library. Pupils can come in and quickly work out where the books that they need are, and take them out. Simple. Adam’s argument for this is that we should be teaching pupils that when they enter a library they should first be aware that the room has an organisation system, and next they look at the plan to see how it is arranged.

As I say, it’s a contentious issue and one that I will give more space to in a longer blog post – but I warn you in advance, you’ll be looking at Dewey very differently after!

And on to Ofsted inspections. I know how frustrating it is for librarians to work flat out and then, when the inspectors come, they don’t even step in the library…. Adam says they shouldn’t have to! Now, this sounds like more controversy, but hear me out, it makes perfect sense and is a bit revelatory. A fully integrated and successful school library is evident from the moment the inspector walks in the building. The positive impact of the library should be evident in the building and in the teaching and it should show. The library will be referenced in teaching and in the very fabric of the building – in posters, displays, but also in the written work that the children generate. Before the inspectors come they will have researched the school and the library should be on the website so they can take a look at the space there, but they have a very limited amount of time inside the building and a visit to the library will not always be top on their lists. If you are doing it all right and the library is a vital part of the school, and an essential cog in the machine of their education, it will show in every classroom they enter.

Almost all schools now would claim to have a whole school reading ethos – but do they really? Are pupils actually reading for pleasure and can this be seen in every classroom and in every teacher? Does the school genuinely and actively embrace reading or is it lip-service? We need ALL teachers from every subject to be actively demonstrating their enthusiasm and love for books and reading in every classroom and every lesson.

So, summing up the key points of Adam’s talk…

As school librarians we need to prioritise – are we spending time on things that will have a positive impact on learning? That is why we are there after all. This is an educational establishment, not a public library and so our priorities should be different.

Show the impact of your actions – has it made a difference? We need to ensure that everything that we do links into teaching and learning. Make it enjoyable! When a child says “I don’t like reading” what they are actually saying is “I don’t like the process that I’ve been put through in the pursuit of reading success.” Is it all working? Are we having a positive impact on the reading in our school? Would your reading ideas work better than those currently in place?

Be informed about literacy teaching. You are part of this process and therefore you should understand fully how the pupils are taught and assessed. Stay on top of government and Ofsted changes and reform, read the White Papers. We have opted to work in an educational environment and that should have an impact on how we do our jobs. Being informed means that you are talking the educational language that the children are accustomed to, and it makes it easier to find things that they will enjoy and yet still be considered part of their reading progression. We need to use everything we can to set up reading habits that they will carry for life.

Use individual teachers. We have a tendency to assume that the SLT are going to be the ones that will help us to implement policies and library related engagement, but why are we doing that? I for one was sagely nodding at the “get the SLT on board” comment  from others – but I was wrong!  Adam is on the SLT and knows how hard it is to get teachers to take on a scheme that they are not fully engaged with. At a grassroots level the only schemes that really work in schools are the ones that the teachers like and support. If you want something done it is far better to show individual teachers how it can benefit them and have them support your ideas up the chain. Work your way up the chain, not down, and you’ll have better success than yet another policy or idea mooted out by the SLT to resistant teachers. Understand the politics, remember, know the game and play it!

And one of the most important points – don’t be precious! You have to be prepared to separate what you think is best for the library, from what might be best for the educational needs of the pupils in your school. It’s not personal, and it’s not about you, it’s about what is best for the educational needs of these pupils.

The most important point though – believe in the importance of what you do! What we do as school librarians is incredibly important. We are giving these young people the ultimate transferable skill to vastly improve the quality of their lives – reading.

 

Footnote – the afternoon of this day was spent on library policy documents, Reading for Pleasure policies, and evidence gathering and these will be covered in separate blog posts so please follow this blog for further info, and on twitter follow @dawnafinch or use #slgtraining.

To find out more about Adam Lancaster please visit his website and follow him on twitter @dusty_jacket